Education of Bangladesh
Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world with about 150 million people within an area of 147,570 thousand square kilometers. Its vast population is one of the major resources. But the problem lies in transforming the potential people into a productive force and ensuring a dynamic environment for social, economic and political development. Though the literacy rate is officially said to be 66%, but according to private survey the rate is only 42%. Education therefore has been recognized as a priority sector by all governments since her independence.
The education system in Bangladesh is characterized by the co-existence of three separate streams. The mainstream happens to be a vernacular based secular education carried over from the colonial past. There also exists a separate system of religious education. Finally, based on use of English as the medium of instruction, another stream of education, modeled after the British education system, has rapidly grown in the metropolitan cities of Bangladesh. The educational system in Bangladesh is three-tiered and highly subsidized. The government of Bangladesh operates many schools in the primary, secondary, and higher secondary levels. It also subsidizes parts of the funding for many private schools. In the tertiary education sector, the government also funds more than 15 state universities through the University Grants Commission.
The three main educational systems in Bangladesh, ordered by decreasing student numbers, are:
- General Education System
- Madrasah Education System
- Technical - Vocational Education System
Other systems include a Professional Education System.
Each of these three main systems is divided into five levels:
- Primary Level (years 1 to 5)
- Junior Level (years 6 to 8)
- Secondary Level (years 9 to 10)
- Higher Secondary Level (years 11 and 12)
- Tertiary Level
However diverse the above streams may apparently look, they have certain common elements, and there exists scope for re-integration of graduates of one stream with the other at different levels.
Primary Education has been made compulsory for children aged 6-10 years by an Act (1990). The compulsory primary education means - "Unless there is a valid ground, the guardian of each child living in an area where primary education has been made compulsory, shall, for the purpose of giving primary education, have his/her child admitted to the nearest primary education institution located in that area"
One or two year pre-primary education is imparted in private schools/kindergartens, and informally in government primary schools for six months.
Five-year compulsory primary education for the 6-10 age group is imparted mainly in government and non-government primary schools. In metropolitan cities, however, government and non-government primary schools cater to the educational needs mainly of the poorer sections of the people, as the better-off families usually send their children to Private English Medium schools/ secondary schools that run primary sections as well. There, however, exist some NGO-run non-formal schools catering mainly for the dropouts of the government and non-government primary schools.
On completion of primary education, students (11+) enroll for junior secondary education that spans over 3 years. At the end of this phase, some students switch over to join the vocational stream, offered at Vocational Training Institutes (VTI) and Technical Training Centres (TTC) run by the Ministry of Education, and the Ministry of Labor and Employment respectively, while students in the mainstream continue in government and non-government secondary schools for a 2 year secondary education in their respective areas of specialization i.e. humanities, science, commerce, etc. At the end of 10th class, the students sit for their first public examination called Secondary School Certificate (S.S.C.) examination under the supervision of seven education boards.
The students of religious education and English medium streams also sit for their respective public examinations, Dakhil and O’ level, conducted by the Madrasha Education Board and London/Cambridge University respectively.
Higher Secondary Stage:
After 10 years of schooling (primary and secondary), students (16+) who succeed in passing the Secondary School Certificate (S.S.C.)/Dakhil/O’ Level examination have the option of joining a college for a 2 year higher secondary education in their respective areas of specialization, or enroll in technical/ poly technical institutes for technical education. After 2-year higher secondary education, one has to sit for another public examination called Higher Secondary Certificate (H.S.C.) examination conducted by the education boards.
Under-graduate education of various duration (2 to 5 years) are offered to 18+ students at a number of public and private universities / degree colleges/technical colleges/ specialized institutions. Successful completion of a degree course is a pre-requisite for appointment to a white-collar civilian job.
Post-graduate education normally of 1-2 year duration is provided at the universities and selected degree colleges and institutions.
The major higher education institutions in Bangladesh include: degree-level liberal arts colleges affiliated to a recently established affiliating university (The Bangladesh National University), publicly supported universities including a University of Engineering and Technology and Agricultural Universities, private Universities established under the Non-government Universities Act (Act 34 of 1992), autonomous institutes of technology, previously called engineering colleges, agricultural colleges, medical colleges, dental colleges, teachers' training colleges, colleges of physical education, college of textile technology college of leather technology.
There is, also an Open University established under Act 38 of 1992. While each of the other universities conducts its own examinations, the Bangladesh National University is responsible for conducting bachelor's and master's examinations of the affiliated degree colleges throughout the country.
Technical and Vocational education management
The Directorate of Technical Education (DTE) is responsible for the planning, development, and implementation of technical and vocational education in the country. Curriculum is implemented by BTEB.
Notable Engineering Universities in Bangladesh:
Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka
Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology, Chittagong
Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi
Dhaka University of Engineering and Technology, Gazipur
Islamic University of Technology, Gazipur
Khulna University of Engineering and Technology, Khulna
Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet
Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, Dhaka
Renowned Engineering Colleges of Bangladesh:
Sylhet Engineering College
Mymensingh Engineering College.
Begumgonj Textile Engineering College, Noakhali
Pabna Textile Engineering College
Bangladesh College of Leather Engineering and Technology
Bangladesh University of Textiles
English Medium Education in Bangladesh
A vast number of schools in Bangladesh are English Medium schools. English Medium schools are mainly private schools where all the courses are taught in English except one Bengali Language subject at ordinary level (O Level). These schools in Bangladesh follow the General Certificate of Education (GCE) syllabus where students are prepared for taking their Ordinary Level (O Level) and Advanced Level (A Level) examinations. The General Certificate of Education system is one of the most internationally recognized qualifications, based from the United Kingdom. The Ordinary and Advanced Level examinations are English equivalent to the Secondary School Certificate (SSC) and Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC) examinations respectively. Most students sit for these exams from the registered schools in Bangladesh who follow the GCE syllabus. Those who do not attend a school that follows the GCE syllabus may also sit for their Ordinary and Advanced Level examinations from British Council. These examinations are conducted under the supervision of British Council in Bangladesh.The GCE examination conducted by the British Council takes place twice a year. Currently there are two boards operating from Bangladesh for Ordinary and Advanced Level Examinations, which are Edexcel and University of Cambridge International Examinations.
The overall responsibility of management of primary education lies with the Primary and Mass Education Division (PMED), set up as a separate division with the status of a Ministry in 1992. While the PMED is involved in formulation of policies, the responsibility of implementation rests with the Directorate of Primary Education (DPE) headed by a Director General.
The Directorate of Primary Education (DPE) and its subordinate offices in the district and upazila are solely responsible for management and supervision of primary education. Their responsibilities include recruitment, posting, and transfer of teachers and other staff; arranging in-service training of teachers; distribution of free textbooks; and supervision of schools. The responsibility of school construction, repair and supply of school furniture lies with the Facilities Department (FD) and Local Government Engineering Department (LGED). The National Curriculum and Textbook Board (NCTB) are responsible for the development of curriculum and production of textbooks. While the Ministry of Education (MOE) is responsible for formulation of policies, the Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education (DSHE) under the Ministry of Education is responsible for implementing the same at secondary and higher education levels. The NCTB is responsible for developing curriculum and publishing standard textbooks.
The educational system of Bangladesh faces several problems. In the past, Bangladesh education was primarily a British modeled upper class affair with all courses given in English and very little being done for the common people. The Bangladesh education board has taken steps to leave such practices in the past and is looking forward to education as a way to provide a poverty-stricken nation with a brighter future. Bangladesh has one of the lowest literacy rates in South Asia. One study found a 15.5% primary school teacher absence rate.
The low performance in primary education is also matter of concern. School drop-out rates and grade repetition rates are high. Poor school attendance and low contact time in school are factors contributing to low level of learning achievement. Further, the system lacks a sound Human Resource Development and deployment system and this has demoralized the primary education sector personnel, including teachers, and contributes to poor performance. Poverty is a big threat to primary education.
In Bangladesh, the population is very high. The number seats available in colleges is less than the number of students who wants to enroll and the number of seats available in universities is also less than the number of students who passed higher secondary level and wants to join in an university. Besides, the cost of education is increasing day by day, as a result many students are unable to afford it.
About 82% of total population in 2012. There are high competition in everywhere. Because Bangladesh has very large population. That is why Bangladeshi educated percent is increasing. Some researcher says that Bangladesh will be one of the most educated country.